Parkour or l’art du déplacement (The art of movement) is a discipline that appeared first in France, more similar to a martial art than to a sport, focused on moving from one point to another as smoothly, efficiently and quickly as possible using the abilities of the human body. The term derives from parcours du combattant, the classic obstacle course method of military training proposed by Georges Hébert.
Skookumchuck (literally, “strong water”) is a word in the Chinook Jargon that is in common use in British Columbia English and occurs in Pacific Northwest English. Skookum means “strong” or “powerful”, and “chuck” means water, so skookumchuck means “rapids” or “whitewater” . It can mean any rapids, but in coastal usage refers to the powerful tidal rapids at the mouths of most of the major coastal inlets.
Zymurgy is the scientific study of fermentation. Originally used to describe the science involved in these processes, it is now broadly used to describe the brewing of alcoholic beverages. Louis Pasteur, considered to be the first zymurgist noted the connection between yeast and fermentation. Eduard Buchner determined that fermentation was actually caused by the yeast’s secretion of an enzyme that he called zymase.
Bespoke is employed in a variety of applications to mean an item custom-made to the buyer’s specification. While applied to many items now, from computer software to luxury car appointments, the term historically was only applied to tailored clothing, shirts and other parts of men’s apparel involving measurement and fitting. While widespread in the United Kingdom, the term is almost unknown in the United States.
De rigueur ( \də-(ˌ)rē-ˈgər\ ) is a French expression that literally means “of rigor” or “of strictness”. In English language usage, it means “necessary according to etiquette, protocol or fashion.” Something that is de rigueur is required by convention or fashion, but not by any hard rule. For example, among the upper classes during the Victorian era, dressing for dinner was de rigueur.
Yodeling (yodelling, jodeling) is a form of singing that involves singing an extended note which rapidly and repeatedly changes in pitch from the vocal or chest register (or “chest voice”) to the falsetto/head register; making a high-low-high-low sound. Used in many cultures throughout the world, in Alpine folk music, it was probably developed in the Swiss Alps as a method of communication between mountain peaks.
Paparazzi is a plural term for photographers who take candid photographs of celebrities caught unaware, at moments when the subjects do not expect to be photographed, such as when they shop, eat at a restaurant, swim or lay on the beach. The term is an eponym originating in the 1960 film “La dolce vita” directed by Federico Fellini where one of the characters is a news photographer named Paparazzo.
Wingsuit is a special jumpsuit that shapes the human body into an airfoil which can create lift. The wingsuit creates the airfoil shape with fabric sewn between the legs and under the arms. It is also known as a birdman suit or squirrel suit. A wingsuit can be flown from any point that provides sufficient altitude to glide through the air, such as skydiving aircraft or BASE jumping exit points.The wingsuit flier wears parachute equipment designed for skydiving or BASE jumping and will deploy it at a planned altitude and unzip the arm wings, if necessary and fly to a normal parachute landing
An avatar is a computer user’s representation of himself/herself or alter ego, whether in the form of a three-dimensional model used in computer games or a two-dimensional icon (picture) used on Internet forums and other communities. In English, the word has come to mean “an embodiment, a bodily manifestation of the Divine.” However, the Sanskrit word Avatara means “incarnation.” The term is used primarily in Hindu texts, e.g. Krishna is the eighth avatar (incarnation) of Vishnu the Preserver. It was in the computer game Ultima IV (1985), that the term “Avatar” was introduced. To become the “Avatar” was the goal of Ultima IV. The use of Avatar to mean online virtual bodies was popularised by Neal Stephenson in his cyberpunk novel Snow Crash (1992)
Blowing a raspberry (or making a Bronx cheer) is slang for showing contempt for someone. In action, “to give a raspberry” is to put one’s tongue between the closed lips and expel air forcibly with a resulting rude noise signifying derision. The Golden Raspberry Awards (Razzies), created by John Wilson in 1980, intends to counterpoint the Academy Awards by (dis)honoring the worst that the film industry has to offer.